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Manchester München Would you like to subscribe to breaking news notifications? VideoManchester United vs Bayern Munich 3-2 Highlights (UCL Quarter-Final) 2009-10 HD 1080i
Update your browser preferences to start receiving news alerts. On 6 February , a charter plane carrying 44 people crashed after refuelling at Munich Airport.
The accident claimed 23 lives, among them eight Manchester United players and three club officials. We hope these pages are a fitting tribute to the young United side many believe would have gone on to dominate European football - the Busby Babes.
The first part of our Munich documentary focuses on Matt Busby's early years as United boss Players from the club's youth ranks begin to make an impact on the first team United meet Red Star in the European Cup quarter-finals.
Disaster strikes as United's plane crashes on take-off in Munich. Survivors are pulled from the wreckage and rushed to hospital. News of the crash in Munich reaches the people back home.
Jimmy Murphy takes temporary control as United begin to rebuild. Thirteen days after the crash, the Reds play Sheffield Wednesday.
One such gathering ended with the Peterloo massacre of 16 August The economic school of Manchester Capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League from onward.
Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels ' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in ; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester,  and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library.
The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet. Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement.
At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking the Manchester School , promoting free trade and laissez-faire , new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation.
It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: "What Manchester does today, the rest of the world does tomorrow.
Many of the great public buildings including Manchester Town Hall date from then. In , when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy.
Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population.
Historian Simon Schama noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke".
An American visitor taken to Manchester's blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments".
The number of cotton mills in Manchester itself reached a peak of in Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester.
Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture.
For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company 's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop 's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons ; and just outside the city in Trafford Park , engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them.
Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe , and by late air raids were taking place against non-military targets.
A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including warehouses, business premises, and offices. Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in Traffic declined, and the port closed in Manchester lost , jobs in manufacturing between and Regeneration began in the late s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink , the Bridgewater Concert Hall , the Manchester Arena , and in Salford the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays.
Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city. Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of , arson in , a series of explosions in , and two bombs in On Saturday 15 June , the Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA carried out the Manchester bombing , the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre.
Spurred by the investment after the bomb and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games , the city centre has undergone extensive regeneration.
Manchester Arndale is the UK's largest city-centre shopping centre. Large city sections from the s have been demolished, re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel.
Old mills have been converted into apartments. Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration, with million-pound loft-house apartments being developed.
On 22 May , an Islamist terrorist carried out a bombing at an Ariana Grande concert in the Manchester Arena ; the bomb killed 23, including the attacker, and injured over It caused worldwide condemnation and changed the UK's threat level to "critical" for the first time since Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded as one of the candidates for the unofficial title of second city of the United Kingdom alongside Birmingham by sections of the international press,  British public,  and government ministers.
The Greater Manchester Combined Authority , with a directly elected mayor , has responsibilities for economic strategy and transport, amongst other areas, on a Greater Manchester-wide basis.
Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group since its inception in The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in , but lost its borough status in a court case of Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of manorial courts , the last of which was dissolved in From a very early time , the township of Manchester lay within the historic or ceremonial county boundaries of Lancashire.
Manchester later formed its own Poor Law Union using the name "Manchester". Manchester regained its borough status in , and comprised the townships of Beswick , Cheetham Hill , Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme.
In , Manchester was granted "city status" in the United Kingdom. In , the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire County Council.
In November , it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected Mayor. The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area.
Manchester is The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell , near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk , and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres to feet above sea level.
Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months.
Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city.
These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool , the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves.
The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area.
For purposes of the Office for National Statistics , Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester Urban Area , the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation.
There is a mix of high-density urban and suburban locations. The largest open space in the city, at around hectares acres ,  is Heaton Park.
Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. The M60 and M56 motorways pass through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively in the south of Manchester.
Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly station.
Manchester experiences a temperate oceanic climate Köppen : Cfb , like much of the British Isles, with warm summers and cool winters. Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, quite often reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days during July and August in particular.
In more recent years, temperatures have occasionally reached over 30 Celsius. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year.
The city's average annual rainfall is Manchester lies at the centre of a green belt region extending into the wider surrounding counties.
This reduces urban sprawl, prevents towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protects the identity of outlying communities, and preserves nearby countryside.
It is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.
Racial structure, according to the census . Religious beliefs, according to the census . Historically the population of Manchester began to increase rapidly during the Victorian era , estimated at , for Manchester and , for Salford in ,  and peaking at , in From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City Council after the Second World War such as Hattersley and Langley.
The mid-year estimate for the population of Manchester was , This was an increase of 7,, or 1. Since , the population has grown by 87,, or This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade.
The Greater Manchester Built-up Area in had an estimated population of 2,, In an estimated 2,, people lived in Greater Manchester.
Between the beginning of July and end of June mid-year estimate date , births exceeded deaths by 4, Migration internal and international and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3, people between July and June Compared with Greater Manchester and with England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly large 20—35 age group.
Since the census, the proportion of Christians in Manchester has fallen by 22 per cent from The proportion of those with no religious affiliation rose by Of all households in Manchester, 0.
In terms of ethnic composition , the City of Manchester has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester. Statistics from the census showed that The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities,  contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.
The Manchester Larger Urban Zone , a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, had a population of 2,, in The economy grew relatively strongly between and , when growth was 2.
As the UK economy continues to recover from its — downturn, Manchester compares favourably according to recent figures.
In it showed the strongest annual growth in business stock 5 per cent of all core cities. Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen.
KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than the Dutch cities of Rotterdam and Amsterdam , which all have a cost-of-living index of less than Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found.
Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in comparative pay with men. The per hours-worked gender pay gap is 3.
Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London, according to GVA Grimley, with a quarterly office uptake averaged over — of some , square ft — equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds , Liverpool and Newcastle combined and 90, square feet more than the nearest rival, Birmingham.
According to property investment research, Manchester is rated as No. This was attributed to a 5. Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture.
The widespread use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade.
Manchester Town Hall , in Albert Square , was built in the Gothic revival style and is seen as one of the most important Victorian buildings in England.
Manchester also has a number of skyscrapers built in the s and s, the tallest being the CIS Tower near Manchester Victoria station until the Beetham Tower was completed in The latter exemplifies a new surge in high-rise building.
It includes a Hilton hotel , a restaurant and apartments. The largest skyscraper is now Deansgate Square South Tower, at metres feet.
The Green Building , opposite Oxford Road station , is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, while the recently completed One Angel Square , is one of the most sustainable large buildings in the world.
Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. The cenotaph in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead.
Designed by Edwin Lutyens , it echoes the original on Whitehall in London. Manchester Liverpool Road was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station  and served as the Manchester terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway — the world's first inter-city passenger railway.
It is still extant and its buildings form part of the Museum of Science and Industry. Two of the city's four main line termini did not survive the s: Manchester Central and Manchester Exchange each closed in In addition, Manchester Mayfield station closed to passenger services in ; its buildings and platforms are still extant, next to Piccadilly station , but are due to be redeveloped in the s.
Today, the city is well served by its rail network although it is now working to capacity,  and is at the centre of an extensive county-wide railway network, including the West Coast Main Line , with two mainline stations: Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria.
Recent improvements in Manchester as part of the Northern Hub in the s have been numerous electrification schemes into and through Manchester, redevelopment of Victoria station and construction of the Ordsall Chord directly linking Victoria and Piccadilly.
Manchester city centre suffers from constrained rail capacity that frequently leads to delays and cancellations — a report found that all three major Manchester stations are among the top ten worst stations in the United Kingdom for punctuality, with Oxford Road deemed the worst in the country.
Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in In —, The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London, with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city.
The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom , with over double the number of annual passengers of the next busiest non-London airport.
The airport has the highest rating available: " Category 10 ", encompassing an elite group of airports able to handle " Code F " aircraft, including the Airbus A and Boeing A smaller City Airport Manchester exists 9.
It was Manchester's first municipal airport and became the site of the first air traffic control tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry.
An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal , was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed for leisure use.
Cycling for transportation and leisure enjoys popularity in Manchester and the city also plays a major role in British cycle racing.
Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu is also from Greater Manchester. Its main pop music venue is Manchester Arena , voted "International Venue of the Year" in  With over 21, seats, it is the largest arena of its type in Europe.
Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is important to Manchester's musical heritage;  some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band , are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass-band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside.
Manchester has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, with a number of large performance venues, including Manchester Opera House , which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the Palace Theatre ; and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester's former cotton exchange, which is the largest theatre in the round in the UK.
Smaller venues include the Contact Theatre and Z-arts in Hulme. The Dancehouse on Oxford Road is dedicated to dance productions. Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse and The Library Theatre.
Since the city has hosted the Manchester International Festival , a biennial international arts festival with a focus on original work, which has included major new commissions by artists, including Bjork.
Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Industrial Revolution , the textile industry , the Trade Union movement, women's suffrage and football.
A reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium is open to the public in Castlefield. The Science and Industry Museum , housed in the former Liverpool Road railway station , has a large collection of steam locomotives , industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world's first stored computer program known as the Manchester Baby.
The municipally owned Manchester Art Gallery in Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting and one of Britain's main collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.
In the south of the city, the Whitworth Art Gallery displays modern art, sculpture and textiles and was voted Museum of the Year in The work of Stretford -born painter L.
Lowry , known for "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in the City and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and at the Lowry art centre in Salford Quays in the neighbouring borough of Salford , which devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works.
The two began writing The Communist Manifesto in Chetham's Library  — founded in and claiming to be the oldest public library in the English-speaking world.
Elsewhere in the city, the John Rylands Library holds an extensive collection of early printing. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52 , believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display there.
Letitia Landon 's poem Manchester in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, , records the rapid growth of the city and its cultural importance.
Charles Dickens is reputed to have set his novel Hard Times in the city, and though partly modelled on Preston , it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell.
She was accompanying her father Patrick , who was convalescing in the city after cataract surgery. Anthony Burgess is among the 20th-century writers who made Manchester their home.
He wrote here the dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange in The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about , with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities.
Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded and given and drugs were openly dealt.
Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20, visitors each weekend  and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester Pride , each August since There are three universities in the City of Manchester.
The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non- collegiate university in the United Kingdom, created in by the merger of Victoria University of Manchester , founded in , and UMIST , founded in  having developed from the Mechanics' Institute founded, as indicated in the university's logo, in Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in The three universities are grouped around Oxford Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher-education precinct.
One of Manchester's notable secondary schools is Manchester Grammar School. Established in ,  as a free grammar school next to what is now the cathedral, it moved in to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body.
In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school i. The LEA also had the highest occurrence of absences: Manchester is well known as a city of sport.
The City of Manchester Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the Commonwealth Games and was then reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester City's arrival.
Manchester has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at Fallowfield Stadium , Maine Road , Old Trafford and the City of Manchester Stadium.
The Manchester Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling. Manchester also hosted the World Squash Championships in ,  and also hosted the World Lacrosse Championship in July The Guardian newspaper was founded in the city in as The Manchester Guardian.
Until , its head office was still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London in At its height, 1, journalists were employed, earning the city the nickname "second Fleet Street ".
In the s the titles closed their northern offices and centred their operations in London. The main regional newspaper in the city is the Manchester Evening News , which was for over 80 years the sister publication of The Manchester Guardian.
Despite its title, it is available all day. Several local weekly free papers are distributed by the MEN group. The Metro North West is available free at Metrolink stops, rail stations and other busy locations.
An attempt to launch a Northern daily newspaper, the North West Times , employing journalists made redundant by other titles, closed in Manchester has been a centre of television broadcasting since the s.
A number of television studios have been in operation around the city, and have since relocated to MediaCityUK in neighbouring Salford. Now based at MediaCityUK, the company's former headquarters at Granada Studios on Quay Street with its distinctive illuminated sign were a prominent landmark on the Manchester skyline for several decades.
Although its influence has waned, Granada had been described as "the best commercial television company in the world". With the growth in regional television in the s, Manchester became one of the BBC 's three main centres in England.
The Manchester television channel, Channel M , owned by the Guardian Media Group operated from , but closed in It began its first broadcast, but in , That's Manchester took over to air on 31 May and launched the freeview channel 8 service slot, before moving to channel 7 in April These stations and pirate radio played a significant role in the city's house music culture, the Madchester scene.
Manchester has formal twinning arrangements or "friendship agreements" with several places. Manchester is home to the largest group of consuls in the UK outside London.
The expansion of international trade links during the Industrial Revolution led to the introduction of the first consuls in the s and since then over , from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester.
Manchester hosts consular services for most of the north of England. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the English city and metropolitan borough.
For other uses, see Manchester disambiguation. City and metropolitan borough in England. City and metropolitan borough. Clockwise from top: Manchester city centre as seen from a distance of approximately 12 miles Coat of arms.
Latin: "Concilio Et Labore" "By wisdom and effort". Shown within Greater Manchester. M , WA Ringway.
Main article: History of Manchester. See also: Timeline of Manchester history. Main article: Mamucium. View from Kersal Moor towards Manchester by Sebastian Pether , circa , then still a rural landscape.
Note the River Irwell in both paintings. Manchester from Kersal Moor , by William Wyld in , a view now dominated by chimney stacks as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution.
See also: Geography of Greater Manchester. Further information: North West Green Belt. Neighbouring districts and places.
Salford Bury Oldham Salford. See also: Demography of Greater Manchester. Asian Black 8. Mixed 4. Chinese 2.
Arab 1. Other 1. No Religion Muslim Hindu 1. Buddhist 0. Jewish 0. Other 0. Religion Not Stated 6. Main article: Economy of Manchester.
See also: List of companies based in Greater Manchester. Main article: Architecture of Manchester. Main article: Transport in Manchester. See also: Transport for Greater Manchester.
Further information: Cycling in Greater Manchester. Main article: Culture of Manchester. See also: List of people from Manchester.
See also: Popular music of Manchester , List of music artists and bands from Manchester , and Madchester. See also: List of schools in Manchester.
Main article: Sport in Manchester. Main article: Media in Manchester. See also: List of television programmes set, produced or filmed in Manchester ; Films set in Manchester ; and List of national radio programmes made in Manchester.
England portal United Kingdom portal Europe portal. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 24 February Retrieved 7 November Brookings Institution.
Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 25 March Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 22 October Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 29 July January Retrieved 14 April The Cotton Industry.
Shire Publications Ltd. Manchester: A History. Lancaster: Carnegie Publishing. Tradition in Action. Why book with us?
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