Solfs Bonn

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Solfs Bonn

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Branche: Spielhallen Alle Branchen. With a sample of Mexican mothe rs, Solfs-Camara and Fox () reported the following coefficient alpha v a lues for the three PBC subsca les: Discipline, N urtur ing, and Expec. Spielhalle Siegburg - sichten Sie alle Firmen und Unternehmen mit Adresse, Telefonnummer und ★ Bewertungen. Das Stadtbranchenbuch für Siegburg zeigt Ihnen aktuell ᐅ 93 Einträge. Solf's Moderne Spielstätten, Rochusstraße , Bonn-Duisdorf, Fußgängerzone Solf's Moderne Spielstätten, Hans-Böckler-Straße 5, Bonn-Beuel Playland. Wilhelm Solf — () Signatur Wilhelm Solfs Wilhelm Heinrich Solf (* Deutsch Wikipedia. Wilhelm Levison — (* Mai in Düsseldorf; † Januar in Durham) war ein deutscher Historiker. Wilhelm Levison lehrte als Professor für Geschichte an der Universität Bonn. Christine Bonn och Tom Kecklund har medverkat som sakkunniga. Den utsedda arbetsgruppen inledde sitt arbete i februari med att fastslå riktlinjerna för projektverksamheten. Kjell Herberts.

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Subscribe to read the entire article. Share on pinterest. Share on facebook. Share on twitter. Share on email. Reasons to use pop music Connections The most important reason, in my mind, for using pop music at times in the music classroom is to connect music of the past to music of the present.

Relevance Yes, we can argue that pop music is like junk food and they get enough on the radio or on their iPods, but to be relevant, shouldn't we have them listen to a little pop music?

Joy When I have used pop music, the excitement in the room is palpable. Reasons using pop music can be difficult So after thinking about how to include pop music in my lessons since my training didn't include it at all , I realized the reason it can be so hard to do is that pop music keeps changing.

Ideas for using pop music After considering the reasons why I wanted to include pop music more, and why creating lessons using pop music is tricky, I have come up with a few ideas over the last couple of years that have worked for me and my students.

Playing a song on instruments I have recently found a couple songs with Orff accompaniment on Pinterest. Join the List.

You may also like Aileen Miracle I'm in my 22nd year of teaching elementary music. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Scroll to next page.

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Print Print article as Order now. Scope Download this The old Galician school is represented by Alfonso Alvarez de Villa- sandino sometimes called de lUescas , a copious, foul- mouthed ruffian, with gusts of inspiration and an abiding mastery of technique.

Macfas has left five songs of slight distinction, and, as a poet, ranks below Rodriguez de la Cimara. Yet he lives on the capital of his legend, the type of the lover faithful unto death, and the circumstances of his passing are a part of Castilian literature.

Quoted times innumerable, this more or less authentic story of Macfas' end ensured him an immortality far beyond the worth of his verses : it fired the popular imagination, and enters into literature in Lope de Vega's Porfiar hasta morir and in Larra's El Doncel de Don Enrique el Doliente, A like romantic memory attaches to Macfas' friend, Juan Rodriguez de la Cdmara also called Rodrfguez del Padr6n , the last poet of the Galician school, re- presented in Baena's Cancionero by a single cdntica.

The conjectures that make Rodrfguez the lover of Juan II. None the less it is certain that the writer was concerned in some myste- rious, dangerous love-affair which led to his exile, and, as some believe, to his profession as a Franciscan monk.

His seventeen surviving songs are all erotic, with the exception of the Flama del divino RayOy his best performance in thanksgiving for his spiritual conversion.

His loves are also recounted in three prose books, of which the semi-chivalresque novel, El Siervo litre de Amory is still readable.

But Rodrfguez interests most as the last representative of the Galician verse tradition. Save Ayala, who is exampled by one solitary poem, the oldest singer in Baena's choir is Pero Ferrus, the connecting link between the Galician and Italian schools.

A learned rather than an inspired poet, Ferrus is remeiti- bered chiefly because of his chancy allusion to Amadis in the stanzas dedicated to Ayala.

Imperial, as his earliest poem shows, read Arabic and English. He may have met with Gower's Confessio Amantis before it was done into Castilian by Juan de la Cuenca at the beginning of the fifteenth century — being the first translation of an English book in Spain.

Howbeit, he quotes English phrases, and offers a copy of French verses. These are trifles : Imperial's best gift to his adopted country was his transplanting of Dante, whom he imitates assiduously, reproducing the Florentine note with such happy intonation as to gain for him the style of poet — as distinguished from trovador — from Santi- llana, who awards him '' the laurel of this western land.

At least one piece by Ferrant Sdnchez Talavera is memorable — the elegy on the death of the Admiral Ruy Diaz de Mendoza, which anticipates the mournful march, the solemn music, some of the very phrases of Jorge Manrique's noble coplas.

In the Dantesque manner is Gonzalo Martinez de Medina's flagellation of the cor- ruptions of his age.

Baena, secretary to Juan II. A remarkable letter to the Constable of Portugal shows Santillana as a pleasant prose-writer ; in his rhetorical Lamentation en Propheqia de la segunda Destruyqion de Espafia he fails in the grand style, though he succeeds in the familiar with his collection of old wives' fireside proverbs, Refranes que diqen las Viejas tras el Huego.

It is impossible to say of Santillana that he was an original genius : it is within bounds to class him as a highly gifted versifier with extraordinary imitative powers.

He has no " message " to deliver, no wide range of ideas : his attraction lies not so much in what is said as in his trick of saying it. He is one of the few poets whom erudition has not hampered.

He was familiar with writers as diverse as Dante and Petrarch and Alain Chartier, and he reproduces their characteristics with a fine exactness and felicity.

But he was something more than an intelligent echo, for he filed and laboured till he acquired a final manner of his own. Commonplace in thought, stiff in expression, the sonnets are only historically curious.

It is in his lighter vein that Santillana reaches his full stature. The grace and gaiety of his dedreSy serranillas and vaqueiras are all his own.

If he borrowed suggestions from Provencal poets, he is free of the Provencal artifice, and sings with the simpli- city of Venus' doves.

Here he revealed a peculiar aspect of his many-sided temperament, and by his tact made a living thing of primitive emotions, which were to be done to death in the pastorals of heavy-handed bunglers.

The first-fruits of the pastoral harvest live in the house where Santillana garnered them, and those roses, amid which he found the milkmaid of La Finojosa, are still as sweet in his best known — and perhaps his best — ballad as on that spring morning, between Calatevefto and Santa Marfa, some four hundred years since.

Ceasing to be an imitator, Santillana proves inimitable. The official court-poet of the age was JUAN DE Mena , known to his own generation as the "prince of Castilian poets," and Cervantes, writing more than a hundred and fifty years afterwards, dubs him ''that great C6rdoban poet.

The Italian travels of his youth undid him, and set him on the hope- less line of Italianising Spanish prose. A false attribution enters the Annals of Juan II.

Simplicity and vulgarity were for him synonyms, and he carries his doctrine to its logical ex- treme by adopting impossible constructions, by wrench- ing his sentences asunder by exaggerated inversions, and by adding absurd Latinisms to his vocabulary.

These defects are less grave in his Verse, but even there they follow him. The poet is whisked by the dragons in Bellona's chariot to Fortune's palace, and there begins the inevitable imitation of Dante, with its machinery of seven planetary circles, and its grandiose vision of past, present, and future.

The work of a learned poet taking himself too seriously and straining after effects beyond his reach, the Laberinto is tedious as a whole ; yet, though Mena's imagination fails to realise his abstractions, though he be riddled with purposeless conceits, he touches a high level in isolated episodes.

A poet by flashes, at intervals rare and far apart, Mena does himself injustice by too close a devotion to aesthetic principles, that made failure a cer- tainty.

Careful, conscientious, aspiring, he had done far more if he had attempted much less. Meanwhile Castilian prose goes forward on Alfonso's lines.

Mingled with many chivalresque details concerning the hidalgos of the court is the central episode of the book, the execution of the Constable, Alvaro de Luna.

The last great scene is skilfully prepared and is recounted with artful simplicity in a celebrated pas- sage : — " He set to undoing- his doublet-collar, making ready his long garments of blue camlet, lined with fox- skins ; and, the master being stretched upon the scaffold, the executioner came to him, begged his pardon, em- braced him, ran the poniard through his neck, cut off his head, and hung it on a hook ; and the head stayed there nine days, the body three.

After much violent controversy, it may now be taken as settled that the CrSnica del Cid is based upon Alfonso's Estoria de Espanna. The first deals with emperors and kings ranging from Alexander to King Arthur, from Charlemagne to Godfrey de Bouillon ; the second treats of saints and sages, their lives and the books they wrote ; and both are arrange- ments of some French version of Guido delle Colonne's Mare Historiarum.

Foreign critics have compared him to Plutarch and to St. He argues from the seen to the unseen with a curious anticipation of modern psychological methods; and it forms an integral part of his plan to draw his personages with the audacity of truth.

He does his share, and there they stand, living as our present-day acquaint- ances, and better known.

Take a few figures at random from his gallery : Enrique de Villena, fat, short, and fair, a libidinous glutton, ever in the clouds, a dolt in practice, subtle of genius so that he came by all pure knowledge easily ; Niiftez de GuzmAn, dissolute, of giant strength, curt of speech, a jovial roysterer ; the King Enrique, grave - visaged, bitter - tongued, lonely, melancholy ; Catherine of Lancaster, tall, fair, ruddy, wine-bibbing, ending in paralysis; the Constable L6pez DAvalos, a self-made man, handsome, taking, gay, amiable, strong, a fighter, clever, prudent, but — as man must have some fault — cunning and given to astrology.

The picture costs him no effort : the man is seized in the act and delivered to you, with no waste of words, with no essential lacking, classified as a museum specimen, impartially but with a tendency to severity ; and when Perez de Guzmdn has spoken, there is no more to say.

He is a good hater, and lets you see it when he deals with courtiers, whom he regards with the true St.

Simonian loathing for an upstart. But history has confirmed the substantial justice of his verdicts, and has thus shown that the artist in him was even stronger than the malignant partisan.

It is saying much. And to his endowment of observation, intelligence, knowledge, and character, Perez de Guzmdn joins the perfect practice of that clear, energetic Castilian speech which his forebears bequeathed him.

First pubHshed in , this work is nothing less than a report of the journey of Ruy Gonzdlez de Clavijo d. Clavijo tells of his wanderings with a quaint mingling of credulity and scepticism ; still, his witness is at least as trustworthy as Marco Polo's, and his recital is vastly more graphic than the Venetian's.

An alternative title — the Vtctorial — discloses the author's intention of representing his leader as the hero of countless triumphs by sea and land.

These affectations apart, Dfaz GAmez writes with sense and force ; exalting his chief overmuch, but giving bright glimpses of a mad, adventurous life, and rising to altisonant eloquence in chivalresque outbursts, one of which Cervantes has borrowed, and not bettered, in Don Quixote's great discourse on letters and arms.

Knight-errantry was, indeed, beginning to possess the land, and, as it chances, an account of the maddest, hugest tourney in the world's history is written for us by an eye-witness, Pero Rodrfguez de Lena, in the Libro del Paso Honroso Book of the Passage of Honour.

The fifteenth century finds the chivalrous romance established in Spain : how it arrived there must be left for discussion till we come to deal with the best example of the kind — Amadis de Gaula.

Here and now it suffices to say that there probably existed an early Spanish version of this story which has disappeared ; and to note that the dividing line between the annals, filled with impos- sible traditions, and the chivalrous tales, is of the finest : so fine, in fact, that several of the latter — for example, Florisel de Ntquea and Amadis de Grecia — take on his- torical airs and call themselves crSnicas.

The mention of the lost Castilian Amadis is imperative at this point if we are to recognise one of the chief contemporary influences.

For the moment, we must be content to note its practical manifestations in the extravagances of Suero de Quiftones, and of other knights whose names are given in the chronicles of Alvaro de Luna and Juan IL The spasmodic outbursts of the craze observable in the serious chapters of Dfaz Gimez are but the distant rumblings before the hurricane.

While Amadis de Gaula was read in courts and palaces, three contemporary writers worked in different veins.

The latter title, not of the author's choosing, has led some to say that he borrowed from Boccaccio. Martinez goes forth to rebuke the vices of both sexes in his age ; but the moral purpose is dropped, and he settles down to a deliberate invective against women and their ways.

Amador de los Rios suggests that Martfnez stole hints from Francisco Eximenis' Carro de la donaSy a Catalan version of Boccaccio's De claris mulieribus: as the latter is a panegyric on the sex, the suggestion is unacceptable.

The plain fact stares us in the face that Martfnez' immediate model is the Archpriest of Hita, and in his fourth chapter that jovial clerk is cited.

In- discriminate, unjust, and even brutal, as Martfnez often is, his slashing satire may be read with extraordinary pleasure : that is, when we can read him at all, for his editions are rare and his vocabulary puzzling.

He falls short of Ruiz' wicked urbanity ; but he matches him in keenness of malicious wit, in malignant parody, in pica- resque intention, while he surpasses him as a collector of verbal quips and popular proverbs.

The wealth of his splenetic genius it is nothing less affords at least one passage to the writer of the Celestina, Last of all — and this is an exceeding virtue — Martfnez' speech main- tains a fine standard of purity at a time when foreign corruptions ran riot.

Hence he deserves high rank among the models of Castilian prose. Another chaplain of Juan II. He follows Cicero's plan in the Definibus bonorum et malorumy intro- ducing Santillana, Mena, and Garcfa de Santa Marfa the probable author, as we have seen, of the King's CrSnica , In an imaginary conversation these great per- sonages discuss the question of mortal happiness, arriving at the pessimist conclusion that it does not exist, or — sorry alternative — that it is unattainable.

Lucena adds nothing to the fund of ideas upon this T ackneyed theme, but the perfect finish of his manner lends attraction to his lucid commonplaces.

The last considerable writer of the time is the Bachelor Alfonso de la Torre fl. Nominally, the Bachelor offers a philo- sophic, allegorical novel ; in substance, his work is a mediaeval encyclopaedia.

It is notable that, despite their new Italian environment, Alfonso's singers write by pre- ference in Castilian rather than in their native Catalan.

Stiiftiga prolongs the courtly tradition in verses whose extreme finish is remarkable. A notorious name is that of Pero Torrellas, whose Coplas de las calidades de las donas won their author repute as a satirist of women, and begot innumerable replies and counterpleas : the satire, to tell the truth, is poor enough, and is little more than violent but pointless invective.

The best as well as the most copious poet of the Neapolitan group is Carvajal or Carvajales , who bequeaths us the earliest known romance, and so far succumbs to circumstances as to pro- duce occasional verses in Italian.

In Castilian, Carvajal has the true lyrical cry, and is further distinguished by a virile, martial note, in admirable contrast with the insipid courtesies of his brethren.

To return to Spain, where, in accordance with the maxim that one considerable poet begets many poet- asters, countless rhymesters spring from Mena's loins.

It lacks neither vigour nor wit, and denotes a mastery of mordant phrase : but the general effect of its obscene malignity is to make one sympathise with the repeated attempts at its suppression.

The attribution to Rodrigo Cota of this perverse performance is capricious : internal evidence goes to show that the libel is the work of several hands.

Like the Coplas del Provincial, this satirical eclogue has been referred to Rodrigo Cota, and, like many other anonymous works, it has been ascribed to Mena.

Gil Aribato blames the people, whose vices are responsible for corruption in high places ; Mingo Revulgo contends that the dissolute King should bear the blame for the ruin of the state, and the argument ends by lauding the golden mean of the burgess.

The tone of Mingo Revulgo is more moderate than that of the Provincial ; the attacks on current evils are more general, more discreet, and therefore more deadly; and the aim of the later satire is infinitely more serious and elevated.

Cast in dramatic form, but devoid of dramatic action, Mingo Revulgo leads directly to the eclogues of Juan del Encina, so often called the father of the Spanish theatre ; but its im- mediate interest lies in the fact that it is the first of effective popular satires.

Among the poets of this age, the Jewish convert, Anton de Montoro, el Ropero ? A fellow of parts, Montoro combined verse-making with tailoring, and his trade is frequently thrown in his teeth by rivals smarting under his bitter insolence.

Save when he pleads manfully for his kins- folk, who are persecuted and slaughtered by a blood- thirsty mob, Montoro's serious efforts are mostly failures.

His picaresque verses, especially those addressed to Juan de Valladolid, are replenished with a truculent gaiety which amuses us almost as much as it amused Santillana ; but he should be read in extracts rather than at length.

Montoro's short pieces are reminiscent of Juan Ruiz, and, for all his in- decency, it is fair to credit him with much cleverness and with uncommon technical skill.

His native vulgarity betrays him into excesses of ribaldry which mar the proper exercise of his undeniable gifts.

A better man and a better writer is Juan Alvarez Gato? His sacred lyrics, the work of his old age, lack unction : but even here his mastery of form saves his pious villancicos from oblivion, and ranks him as the best of Encina's predecessors.

His friend, HernAn Mexfa, follows Pero Torrellas with a satire on the foibles of women, in which he easily outdoes his model in mis- chievous wit and in ingenious fancy.

Gomez Manrique, Seftor de Villazopeque , is a poet of real distinction, whose entire works have been reprinted from two complementary cancioneros discovered in Humour was not G6mez Manrique's calling, and his attention to form is an obvious preoccupation which diminishes his vigour: but his chivalrous refinement and noble tenderness are manifest in his answer to Torrellas' invective.

His pathos is nowhere more touch- ing than in the elegiacs on Garcilaso de la Vega ; while in the lines to his wife, Juana de Mendoza, G6mez Man- rique portrays the fleetingness of life, the.

It consists of twenty octosyllabic stanzas delivered by the Virgin, St. Joseph, St. Gabriel, St. Michael, St.

Raphael, an angel, and three shepherds, the whole closing with a cradle-song. Simple as the construction is, it is more elaborate than that of a later play on the Passion, wherein the Virgin, St.

John, and the Magdalen appear though the last takes no part in the dialogue. The refrain or estribillo at the end of each stanza goes to show that this piece was intended to be sung.

In all three experiments the action is of the slightest, though the dialogue is as dramatic as can be expected from a first attempt. The point to be noted is that G6mez Manrique foreshadows both the lay and sacred elements of the Spanish theatre.

His fame has been unjustly eclipsed by that of his nephew, Jorge Manrique, Sefior de Belmontejo , a brilliant soldier and partisan of Queen Isabel's, who perished in an encounter before the gates of Garci- Miifloz, and is renowned by reason of a single master- piece.

Like that of his uncle, G6mez, his vein of humour is thin and poor, and the satiric stanzas to his stepmother border on vulgarity.

In acrostic love- songs and in other compositions of a like character, Jorge Manrique is merely clever in the artificial style of many contemporaries — is merely a careful craftsman absorbed in the technical details of art, with small merit beyond that of formal dexterity.

The work- manship is of almost incomparable excellence, and in scarcely one stanza can the severest criticism find a technical flaw.

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3 Kommentare

  1. Zulkigar

    der Bemerkenswerte Gedanke

  2. Moran

    Ihre Frage, wie zu bewerten?

  3. Arashirisar

    ich beglückwünsche, dieser Gedanke fällt gerade übrigens

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